Cigarette filter

Cigarette filters are made from cellulose acetate and are biodegradable,[87][88] though depending on environmental conditions they can be resistant to degradation. Accordingly, the duration of the degradation process is cited as taking as little as one month to three years[87] to as long as 10 to 15 years.[88] One campaign group has suggested they are never fully biodegraded.[89] This variance in rate and resistance to biodegradation in many conditions is a factor in littering[90] and environmental damage.[91] It is estimated that 4.5 trillion cigarette butts become litter every year.[88] In the 2006 International Coastal Cleanup, cigarettes and cigarette butts constituted 24.7 percent of the total collected pieces of garbage, over twice as many as any other category.[92] Cigarette butts contain the chemicals filtered from cigarettes and can leach into waterways and water supplies.[93] The toxicity of used cigarette butts depends on the brand design because cigarette companies incorporate varying degrees of chemicals in their tobacco blends. After a cigarette is smoked, the butt is capable of retaining some of the chemicals, and parts of them are carcinogenic.[85] The results of one study indicate that the chemicals released into freshwater environments from cigarette butts are lethal to daphnia at concentrations of 0.125 cigarette butts per liter (or one cigarette butt per 2 gallons of water).[86] Cellulose acetate and carbon particles breathed in from cigarette filters is suspected of causing lung damage.[94] Smoldering cigarette butts have also been blamed for triggering fires from residential fires[95] to major wildfires and bushfires which have caused major property damage and also death[96][97][98] as well as disruption to services by triggering alarms and warning systems.[99] Many governments have sanctioned stiff penalties for littering of cigarette butts; the U.S. state of Washington imposes a penalty of $102

.[100] Cigarette butts are one of the most commonly found litters on the street. Most high-rise littering also relates to cigarette butts.[101] There are several options that may help reduce the environmental impact that cigarette butts cause. This includes developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, using cigarette packs with a compartment to discard cigarette butts in, implementing monetary deposits on filters, increasing the availability of butt receptacles, and expanding public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. Portuguese ( portugues (help·info) or lingua portuguesa [igw? pu?tuez?]) is a Romance language. It is the official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, and Sao Tome and Principe. Portuguese has co-official status (alongside the indigenous language) in Macau in East Asia, East Timor in Southeast Asia and in Equatorial Guinea in Central Africa; out of the expansion of the language in colonial times, Portuguese speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India. Portuguese is a part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of colloquial Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia. With approximately 210 to 215 million native speakers and 240 million total speakers, Portuguese is usually listed as the seventh most spoken language in the world (or sixth, being very close to Bengali in native speakers), the third European language most spoken in the world, the most spoken language in both South America (the number of Spanish and Portuguese speakers is actually extremely close, but about 51% of the continent's population lives in Brazil) and the Southern Hemisphere, the second most spoken Romance language in Africa (after French) and the most spoken Romance language in Oceania, Japan and Mainland Asia.